Researchers have identified a viable new treatment option for individuals whose PSA levels rise after radical prostatectomy.

Promising treatment if PSA increases after prostatectomy

Numerous men who undergo radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer live their entire lives without a recurrence of the disease. Twenty to forty per cent of them will suffer an increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values within ten years of surgery. If the prostate has been removed, PSA levels in the blood should be undetectable, indicating that cancer may have returned. This is known as a biochemical relapse, and it is often treated with radiation to the prostate bed, where the prostate resided prior to its removal. This type of treatment, known as pelvic bed radiation therapy or PBRT, is frequently successful in reducing PSA levels to zero for years.

Now, a comprehensive study demonstrates that PBRT is even more beneficial when paired with other therapies. Men who experience a biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy may benefit from these findings.

Funded by the National Cancer Institute, almost 300 medical centres in the United States, Canada, and Israel participated in the SPPORT phase 3 clinical trial. Between 2008 and 2015, a total of 1,797 men with post-surgical PSA values between 1 and 2 nanograms per millilitre (ng/mL) were included.

Is this something you've heard before?

You're sitting at your computer, staring at a wall of e-mails. You hit "send" after finishing your response and reach for the bulging tuna wrap on your desk. You set the wrap down, grab a handful of chips, and open the next message after a few bites, chewing while glancing at the screen. Before you know it, you've finished your meal without even realizing it.

A small but growing body of research suggests that eating more slowly and thoughtfully may help with weight issues and may steer some people away from processed foods and other less-healthy options.

This alternative method is known as "mindful eating." It is based on the Buddhist concept of mindfulness, which entails being fully aware of what is going on inside and outside of you at the time. Mindfulness techniques have been proposed in other areas as a way to relieve stress and alleviate problems such as high blood pressure and chronic gastrointestinal issues.

What is Mindful eating?
Mindful eating (i.e., paying attention to our food intentionally, moment by moment, and without judgment) is an approach to food that emphasizes sensuous awareness of the food and the experience of eating. It is unrelated to calories, carbs, fat, and protein.

Mindfulness in eating entails noticing the colours, smells, flavours, and textures of your food; chewing slowly; eliminating distractions such as TV or reading; and learning to cope with food guilt and anxiety. Some aspects of mindful eating appear to be influenced by the ideas of Horace Fletcher, an early twentieth-century food faddist who believed that chewing food thoroughly would solve a variety of health problems.

The mind-gut relationship
Digestion involves a complex series of hormonal signals between the gut and the nervous system, and it appears that the brain takes about 20 minutes to register satiety (fullness). If someone eats too quickly, satiety may occur after overeating rather than stopping it. There's also evidence that eating while distracted by activities like driving or typing may cause digestion to slow or stop, similar to how the "fight or flight" response works. And if we don't digest well, we may be missing out on the full nutritive value of some of the food we eat.

In her 2010 book Savor: Mindful Eating, Mindful Life, co-written with Zen master Thich Nhat Hanh, nutritionist and Harvard School of Public Health lecturer Lilian Cheung lays out the rationale for mindful eating as a way to lose weight. The book, which combines science and Buddhist philosophy, has spawned a thriving Facebook page where people share recipes and other healthy living advice.

Stephanie Meyers, a dietician at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, uses mindfulness techniques to assist cancer patients with their diets in a variety of ways. For example, she will encourage head and neck cancer survivors to meditate on food as they make the sometimes difficult transition from a feeding tube back to eating. Patients could practice this meditation by biting into an apple slice, closing their eyes, and focusing on the sensory experience of tasting, chewing, and swallowing.

According to new research, routine mammograms, which are used to check for breast cancer, may also reveal information about a woman's risk of heart disease.

On mammograms, white patches or lines indicate calcium buildup in the breast arteries. This type of calcification differs from the calcification of the coronary arteries, which is recognized to be a sign of increased cardiovascular risk. Researchers tracked 5,059 postmenopausal women (ages 60 to 79) for six and a half years for this study. They discovered that women with breast artery calcification were 51 per cent more likely than women without calcification to develop heart disease or have a stroke. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging published the study on March 15, 2022.

Is growing older a positive or negative experience for you? According to a study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association, having a positive attitude toward ageing may aid in your recovery from a health setback. A Connecticut health plan provided 598 patients (mostly women) for the study. Over the course of ten years, participants were interviewed once a month and completed home-based assessments. The words individuals chose to describe growing older were utilized to assess their age preconceptions (ranging from positive terms like "spry," to negative terms such as "decrepit"). People with a positive attitude about aging were 44 per cent more likely than those with a negative attitude to recover from handicap. They were also better at going about their everyday routines. More research is needed to see if initiatives aimed at changing people's views about aging might help older people live more independently.

Do fitness trackers really help people move more?

According to a recent survey, one in every five people owns a smartwatch or fitness tracker. These wrist-worn monitors are a convenient way to track your daily steps, and they're likely more accurate than the tally on your smartphone, which you may not have with you at all times. Most wearable devices also provide a variety of other data, such as your heart rate, walking speed, and so on.

But does using one have an impact on how active people are? The answer is yes, according to the largest study on the subject to date (see "Fitness trackers and activity levels: What's the evidence?"). Regular physical activity is essential for a healthy heart, and the improvements seen in this study could potentially make a difference, according to Dr Megan Wasfy, a cardiologist at Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital's Cardiovascular Performance Laboratory.

"The increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was close to 50 minutes per week, which is one-third of the 150 minutes recommended by federal activity guidelines," Dr. Wasfy says. The extra 1,200 daily steps taken when people wore trackers were roughly the same as the number of steps linked to a longer life in several studies. 10,000 steps a day has been recommended as a daily goal for a long time, but research shows that 8,000 steps a day is almost as good for your health, especially in older people.

What is the evidence for fitness trackers and activity levels?
A group of Danish researchers looked at the evidence and analyzed it to find out how feedback from wearable fitness trackers affects how much people work out and do other things.

They found 121 different studies involving nearly 17,000 mostly healthy adults ages 18 to 65. The participants' median age was 47, and the majority were female. The study's intervention periods had a median duration of 12 weeks.

Researchers discovered that using physical activity monitors led to an extra 1,235 steps per day and 49 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week on average. They also stood for an additional 10 minutes per day, though this was insignificant. The study was published in The BMJ on January 26, 2022.

Depression in Older Adults May be Prevented by Insomnia Treatment. 

Depression is very common among the elderly. According to some estimates, more than 10% of people over the age of 60 had experienced major depressive disorder (MDD) in the previous year. Depressed mood, loss of interest in pleasurable activities, difficulties concentrating, thoughts of worthlessness or guilt, thoughts of death or suicide, weariness, sleep disorders, unanticipated weight loss or gain, a change in appetite, and delayed or agitated movement are some of the symptoms of MDD.
What is the relationship between sleep and depression?
In someone with MDD, insomnia (difficulty getting asleep, remaining asleep, and/or waking up too early) and hypersomnia (sleeping excessively) are both common. Insomnia, in particular, doubles the risk of MDD. This is especially true for the elderly, as one study found that over 70% of those over the age of 65 suffer from at least one symptom of insomnia.
Why would scientists look into insomnia therapy as a means of preventing depression?
There is growing evidence that treating insomnia in patients with both insomnia and MDD can help them sleep better and feel better. In one trial done in Australia (CBT-I), participants with insomnia and MDD were treated with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia. CBT-I is a set of tools meant to help patients treat only their insomnia, as opposed to other conditions where cognitive and behavioural methods are often utilized, such as depression. This indicates that the skills learned during CBT for depression will not help people suffering from sleeplessness. 61 per cent of research participants who underwent CBT-I from a behavioural sleep medicine expert felt better, and many symptoms of their depression improved—to the point where their MDD was declared to be in remission.

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The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated two decades ago that type 2 diabetes might be slowed or prevented in those diagnosed with early symptoms (prediabetes). A low-calorie healthy diet combined with at least 150 minutes of activity was one strategy examined to help individuals lose at least 7% of their body weight. Metformin, a common diabetes treatment, was another option. Both were compared to a placebo (fake) pill control group.

A new follow-up study looked at death rates from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in later years, and the results for each group were surprising in various respects.


What are the benefits of slowing or preventing diabetes?

Diabetes type 2 is one of the most common long-term conditions in the world. It can lead to heart disease, nerve damage, eye issues, and renal problems over time, increasing the risk of disability and death. If a person's blood tests reveal that they have prediabetes, well-tested strategies can help them delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. This could help individuals live longer and better lives.

What did the follow-up research reveal?

The findings of the original study suggest that both lifestyle changes and metformin medication can significantly reduce the risk of developing diabetes in people with prediabetes. The risk was reduced by 58% and 31%, respectively when compared to the control group.
The original DPP cohort of 3,234 people was invited to stay in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study, a follow-up observation Study (DPPOS). Most of the people in the study have been followed for more than 20 years, giving researchers a unique chance to look at several important health outcomes.
After an average of 21 years, the researchers looked at participant fatalities from any cause, cancer, or cardiovascular disease. Researchers found no difference in death rates between the people in the intensive lifestyle arm of the study and the people in the metformin arm of the study compared to the people in the control group.
We're keeping an eye on this research.

A recent study shows that middle-aged men who worry or feel anxious a lot are more likely to have problems that make them more likely to get heart disease as they get older than their friends who don't worry as much.


The study, which began in 1975, comprised 1,561 men without cardiac disease with an average age of 53. All of the males took tests to see how worried they were and how neurotic they were, a personality trait linked to feelings of dread, grief, and rage. Researchers collected data on the men's risk of cardiometabolic disease (which includes heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes) every three to five years until they died or dropped out. Blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar, BMI, and a blood marker of inflammation were all measured.

Reduced carbohydrate intake may improve several cardiovascular risk factors, but additional research is needed.

Can a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Be Beneficial to Your Heart?

When many people envision a low-carbohydrate diet, they envision dishes heaped with red meat, bacon, and butter. Low-carbohydrate diets, which are frequently high in saturated fat, have long been considered bad for the heart. However, a study published online on Sept. 28, 2021, in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, discovered that a small amount of saturated fat may be OK if the rest of the diet is healthy.

The researchers discovered that following a well-designed low-carbohydrate diet plan appeared to minimize several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This is despite the fact that saturated fat made up 21% of daily calories, which is more than double the amount of fat you should eat each day.

However, this does not mean you should remove all of the bread from your meal. It is premature to declare that a low-carbohydrate diet is actually heart-healthy. One cause for concern is that the researchers picked an unusually low-carbohydrate diet. "This was not a bacon and steak diet. This included nuts and lentils, vegetarian sloppy joes, salmon, and a variety of vegetables.

We are keeping an eye on this research.

Including olive oil in your diet may help you live longer, according to a new study by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researchers.

The study, published online on Jan. 10, 2022, in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, discovered that persons who consumed more olive oil had a decreased risk of death during a 28-year period compared to those who consumed olive oil infrequently or never.

The researchers analyzed data from two big trials that included over 90,000 men and women. At the start of the study, all subjects were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Every four years, they were asked to complete dietary questionnaires. In total, 36,856 of them perished during their studies. Those who ingested the most olive oil on a daily basis — an average of more than a tablespoon — had the lowest risk of death during the study period. They possessed:
Woman cooking in the kitchen

If you work the night shift, eating during the day may be beneficial to your health. A small trial discovered that persons who worked night shifts for 14 days and also ate some meals at night saw an increase in blood sugar levels, potentially increasing their chance of developing diabetes, obesity, or heart disease.

It's not easy to figure out what causes a disease. One reason is that the great majority of diseases are caused by a combination of factors. Rather, the majority of diseases are caused by a combination of factors.

Genes are one factor. Some people are born with one or more genes that predispose them to certain diseases. Other influences come from your surroundings and behaviour, such as what you eat, the air you breathe, the amount of physical activity you do, and smoking behaviors. According to new research, some viruses may possibly have a role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Why does multiple sclerosis affect brain and spinal cord cells?

Multiple sclerosis is a brain and spinal cord disease that can produce a variety of neurological symptoms such as arm and limb weakness, visual loss, difficulties thinking, and severe fatigue. We've learnt that MS is an autoimmune disease over the last 50 years: the immune system targets the brain and/or spinal cord in numerous ways, causing symptoms.

However, we still don't know why: what triggers the immune system's attack? Several viruses have been proposed as MS causes over the years, only to be disproved by future study. As a result, several MS doctors and scientists have ruled out viruses as a cause.

Nonetheless, current data suggests that various infections may be MS triggers. Epstein-Barr virus has the most evidence (EBV). Most people in industrialized countries, such as the United States, contract this virus when they are in their teen or young adult years.

Once a person has been infected, the virus remains dormant in the body for the rest of their lives. It has no adverse effects on most people's health. It can, however, trigger some malignancies in rare cases. Multiple sclerosis has now been linked to it.

Sleep May Help You Lose Weight

Eat less and sleep more? Sleep deprivation may have an impact on weight management, according to a new study.

Weight loss was originally considered a simple calculation: eat less and move more to establish a calorie deficit. Underlying disparities between people—in genetics, health issues, body type, and more—are also thought to play a factor in how tough it is to lose weight. Yet research reveals that some things may help set the stage for success.
Sleep more to eat less? New data reinforces this notion, demonstrating that adults who are well-rested consume many fewer calories than those who are chronically sleep-deprived.

This short-term research of 80 overweight patients hammers home just how fundamental slumber is to our predisposition to put on additional pounds, says Dr Beth Frates, director of lifestyle medicine and wellness in the department of surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital.

"Investing in strategies to improve sleep hygiene may help people get the required seven to nine hours of sleep every night," Dr Frates explains. "This could result in people who are overweight by BMI consuming fewer calories and even losing weight."

Sleep deprivation is associated with chronic disorders.

The current study, published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine, confirms previous findings that those who sleep less consume more calories and even seek higher-calorie items than those who sleep for longer periods of time.
Dr. Frates observes that around one-third of Americans do not get the required seven to nine hours of sleep each night, and this deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic conditions, including high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. According to her, sleep is one of the six pillars of lifestyle medicine, along with exercise, a nutritious diet, stress reduction, social interaction, and avoiding toxic drugs.
"The majority of individuals place a premium on exercise and diet when it comes to weight management and heart health, but very few place a premium on sleep," she says.
Sleep cycles, calorie intake, and weight tracking
Adults aged 21 to 40 with a BMI of between 25.0 and 29.9 were included in the study. This BMI range is considered overweight. Each of them slept fewer than 6.5 hours per night on a regular basis. For the first two weeks, everyone slept normally.
The second two weeks were spent randomly assigning participants to two equal groups. To achieve 8.5 hours of sleep, one group received individualized therapy, highlighting strategies to modify sleep-disrupting elements such as bed partners, children, and pets.
"The suggestion was no blanket," Dr Frates emphasizes. "It was tailored to the individual, and there was a follow-up meeting with additional therapy." The second group of volunteers continued to sleep in their usual manner.
All were instructed to maintain their everyday routines without altering their food or exercise habits. Each participant wore a wristband that monitored their sleep cycles and weighed themselves each morning. Sophisticated laboratory testing determined the difference between the calories consumed and expended by each participant each day.

Appetite-regulating hormone balance

The researchers discovered that participants who received sleep hygiene counselling slept an average of over an hour longer each night than those who maintained their previous sleeping habits. Additionally, participants in the extended sleep group consumed an average of 270 fewer calories per day and lost nearly a pound on average, compared to participants in the control group, who gained just under a pound on average.
The findings are significant because they demonstrate the efficacy of education and counselling in changing behaviour—in this case, sleep, as Dr Frates explains. She adds that significantly increased sleep duration can help patients feel more alive than just surviving, she says.
However, why might additional sleep be beneficial? Sleep duration has long been associated with the body's generation of hormones that regulate appetite. Inadequate sleep is connected with increased levels of the hormone ghrelin, which stimulates appetite, and decreased levels of the hormone leptin, which causes a sense of satiety. This encourages people to gain weight. By contrast, sleeping more may have an effect on these hormones, rebalancing them.
"With additional sleep, individuals may also feel more awake, energized, and happy," Dr. Frates says. "This could result in increased activity, even if it is not physical activity. It is possible that this will result in less sitting and more interaction.
It's worth mentioning that the study did not disclose whether the longer sleep pattern was maintained following the two-week intervention period, nor did it disclose the sorts of meals consumed by individuals and when.
Additionally, the study had major shortcomings. Did participants in the sleep extension intervention make healthier lifestyle choices? Dr. Frates inquires. While calories are critical, the source of those calories is just as critical. Measuring hunger, desires, and stress levels would also be beneficial.

Takeaways for improving your sleep

A few important strategies from the study may help you sleep better and maybe consume fewer calories:
Maintain a sleep log.
Evaluate bedtime rituals in order to fine-tune variables affecting sleep length.
Electronic device use should be limited to at least one hour before bed.

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After two months of feeling down and out, you haven't been able to eat or sleep soundly because of your negative outlook. Your family is concerned because you have lost interest in cooking and reading, both of which you used to like. The pandemic's stress has altered your schedule, and you're juggling distant work, childcare responsibilities, household administration, and the care of your ailing father. You attempted to contact a therapist, but after conducting a long web search, you discovered that the first available appointment was months away. Apps for mobile therapy were recommended by a friend, but do they work?


What is the conclusion of the research?

An app claims to treat depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses without having to see a doctor or talk with other people about them. There's no need to wait, and anyone with a smartphone may get started right away. Many apps are free, in addition to being convenient. You might be right if something sounds too wonderful to be true.
According to a study that looked at randomized controlled trials of mobile app mental health interventions with nearly 50,000 patients, there was no "convincing evidence" that any mobile app intervention greatly improved outcomes related to people's anxiety, depression, smoking or drinking, thoughts of suicide, or feelings of well-being. While this is regrettable, it is possible that this is due to the study procedures, in which researchers combined interventions that were fundamentally different together. When the results of a short trial with a good effect are coupled with less effective therapies, the results may appear unhelpful.
When we believe in treatments, they work. Headspace is a very popular app for meditation, as compared to a sham version of the app (which includes guided breathing but without the active component of mindfulness). Both the active and sham versions of the intervention increased outcomes (critical thinking and mindfulness), suggesting that the active element may not be in the intervention component itself.
What about depression-computerized cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) programs? Researchers from the United Kingdom investigated the impact of the most popular CBT programs (Beating the Blues and MoodGYM) and found no improvement when compared to standard basic care.


What are we to make of these findings?

The study of the mental health effects of mobile apps is still in its early stages, but we will have more information in the next few years. Low-touch interventions, such as mobile apps, may be able to help you get through a difficult moment or, at the very least, raise your symptom awareness. Is it going to help you with your depression? Probably not, but if you believe in it, it might help.


One of the most common neurologic diseases is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's Disease), which damages nerve cells in your spinal cord as well as your brain, leading to muscular atrophy and weakening. It usually begins between the ages of 55 and 75 without notice. A person's ability to move, speak, eat, or breathe will be severely compromised as their ALS disease advances. Death usually occurs within three to five years of diagnosis, despite the fact that two FDA-approved treatments can modestly reduce its progression.

Despite decades of investigation, no definitive cause has been identified. In spite of this, a new study has found a correlation between ALS and professional football.

Why is Lou Gehrig's disease referred to as ALS?

Much about ALS has remained a mystery since its discovery in the late 1800s. It is extremely rare, affecting only two persons in every 100,000. If it weren't for Lou Gehrig, the Hall of Fame baseball player who played for the New York Yankees in the 1920s and 1930s, you wouldn't have heard about this condition. At the age of 36, he was diagnosed with ALS and died two years later. The condition is now commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease in honour of Lou Gehrig.

The Ice Bucket Challenge and other widely publicized social media efforts have done much to increase interest in and support for ALS research in recent years.

Trying to find out what causes ALS

According to several studies, the following may increase your risk of developing ALS:

One out of every ten cases can be attributed to genetics.

One study has shown that heavy smokers are 26 per cent more likely to acquire Lou Gehrig's disease.

Inhalation of pesticides, such as those applied to crops.

A physical injury is serious enough to limit one's ability to go about one's everyday routines.

Physically demanding jobs, such as those performed by professional sports or members of the military.

Injuries to the head, including concussions and more minor head trauma.

While head injuries have been linked to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), the function they play in the development of ALS is less clear.

ALS has been linked to professional football, according to a new study.

Some occurrences of ALS may be explained by a new study published in JAMA Network Open. Playing professional football may be a risk factor for developing the condition, according to the findings.

In the National Football League (NFL) from 1960 to 2019, 19,423 men participated (NFL). A total of 38 people were diagnosed with ALS during that time period, and a total of 28 people succumbed to the condition.

The chance of having ALS and dying from the disease was roughly four times higher among these present and past football players than among men in the general population.
The average football career of NFL players with ALS was seven years longer than that of those without the disease (4.5 years).

At the time of their ALS diagnosis, several NFL players were in their 30s. This is a lot younger than the average age of onset for ALS.

How reliable are these conclusions?

This was purely a case study based on direct observation. To determine whether or if an individual's participation in the NFL is associated with a certain ailment, researchers can do an observational study (ALS). It does not, however, prove that the risk factor was the cause of the illness.

A confounder, a component that wasn't explored or accounted for, could explain the correlation in research like this. As an illustration, no data were gathered on head traumas, pesticide exposure, smoking, or family history in this study at all. This means that it cannot tell us if these factors played a role in the development of ALS.

In addition, only obituaries and Google News articles were used to find diagnoses of ALS in NFL players. A study of the athletes' medical records failed to corroborate the diagnoses. As a result, ALS patients may have been overlooked or misdiagnosed.

Perhaps the study missed ALS cases among less well-known players, whose health issues or fatalities might not be covered by the media. The researchers logged markers of NFL stardom to explain this (including selection to the NFL Pro Bowl and Hall of Fame). Players with and without a greater level of fame were shown to have the same ALS risk.

However, the authors of this study failed to investigate if playing professional football may increase one's risk of developing ALS. According to the authors of the study, traumatic brain injury may be to blame.

In conclusion

Trying to figure out which sports have a negative impact on brain health is a top priority for researchers and public health specialists alike. In the past few decades, experts' suggestions for contact sports have evolved to include the use of protective equipment, revisions in-game rules and restrictions on the participation of younger players.

Studies have shown a substantial connection between brain impairment from repeated head trauma and concussions, as previously stated. Brain trauma may be a factor in some cases of ALS, according to a new study.

Over the course of his sporting career, Lou Gehrig is said to have suffered numerous concussions. The potential that Lou Gehrig's death was caused by traumatic brain injury has been raised by this new research, regardless of whether or not he had Lou Gehrig's disease or CTE with ALS signs. Even as we applaud individuals who display great athletic ability and a will to win at any cost, it is critical that the health of people who participate in sports be protected even more.

Why Overweight people should get a diabetes screening as soon as possible.

According to a new recommendation from the US Preventive Services Task Force, if your body mass index (BMI) — a measure of body fat based on both weight and height — is 25 or higher, you should be evaluated for prediabetes and diabetes every three years starting at age 35, rather than age 40. It is hoped that by screening these people at a younger age, more cases of prediabetes and diabetes may be discovered sooner, allowing some of the disease's worst impacts to be avoided. According to the CDC, 13% of individuals in the United States have diabetes, and 34.5 percent have prediabetes.

An old man playing basketball

Q. Is it true that regular exercise protects against mental deterioration as well as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease? If that's the case, how can exercise help with all of this?

A. For decades, we've got solid data that regular exercise protects against all of these things. But how do you do it? That has been the question. It's simple to understand how burning calories through regular exercise might help prevent weight gain. However, it's been more difficult to figure out how exercise can protect you from diabetes, heart disease, and dementia.

The Harvard Health Letter published an article in 2012 on a hormone named irisin that was discovered at Harvard Medical School (pronounced EYE-ris-in). The hormone was first discovered in mice, but it was later discovered in humans. Muscles and possibly other organs, including the brain, create irisin during exercise.

Experiments have shown that this molecule converts white fat cells (which store fat) to brown fat cells (which burn fat), as well as improves insulin resistance. These adjustments help people lose weight and protect them from diabetes and heart disease. Is irisin also responsible for the positive effects of exercise on the brain?
In the journals

Vitamin D deficiency is widely known as a risk factor for bone disorders such as rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. However, it may also increase your risk of having a heart attack or dying prematurely.

Vitamin D deficiency is defined by the Endocrine Society as a blood level of fewer than 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), whereas vitamin D sufficiency is defined as a blood level of 21 to 29 ng/mL. The optimal concentration is between 30 and 100 ng/mL.

Researchers identified 19,092 adults who failed at least two vitamin D tests and had never had a heart attack in a study published in October 2021 in The Journal of the Endocrine Society. Each person was assigned to one of three groups. Individuals in group A did not get treatment, and their blood levels remained less than 20 ng/mL. Vitamin D supplementation increased the levels of vitamin D in group B to between 21 and 29 ng/mL. Individuals in group C received sufficient supplements to boost their levels to 30 ng/mL or above.
If your body mass index (BMI) is 25 or above, you should begin screening for prediabetes and diabetes every three years at age 35, rather than at age 40, according to an updated recommendation from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. It is hoped that screening these individuals at a younger age may detect more cases of prediabetes and diabetes earlier, thereby averting some of the disease's worst consequences. According to the CDC, approximately 13% of adults in the United States have diabetes, while another 34.5 percent have prediabetes. 

Risk of dementia

Individuals who develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts, or diabetes-related eye disease (DRED) may be at an increased risk of dementia, according to a study published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology on Sept. 13, 2021.

The researchers collected health data on around 12,000 persons aged 55 to 73 and then followed them for up to 15 years, noting who had dementia or age-related eye disorders. They discovered that individuals with AMD had a 26% increased risk of dementia, those with cataracts had an 11% increased risk, and those with DRED had a 61% increased risk. Glaucoma, on the other hand, was not connected with an increased risk of dementia.
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