When should it be done?

What is the best choice for colon cancer screening and when should it be done?

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second biggest cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and the incidence rate is increasing, particularly among adults aged 20 to 49. Unfortunately, only about 30% of eligible adults in the United States have been examined for CRC.

Screening tests that look for cancer or precancerous growths called colon polyps can help avoid colon cancer.

When is the best time to begin screening?

For average-risk people, the United States Preventative Services Task Force recommends commencing CRC screening at the age of 45. These recommendations are based on the most recent information on when the risk of colon cancer begins to rise.

Patients at average risk have no personal or family history of colon cancer, nor do they have a genetic disease that raises their risk of getting CRC. As a result, patients should discuss their family history with their primary care physician, including all cancer diagnoses in blood relatives, so that the optimal time to start colon cancer screening may be determined.

Which type of screening should you go with?

The most crucial aspect of colon cancer screening is having a test performed. Colonoscopy or FIT testing are the most popular procedures to screen for colon cancer in most patients. If you can't or don't want to have a colonoscopy or FIT testing, there are other choices to think about. Finally, this is a personal and essential decision that a patient should address with their healthcare professional so that the appropriate test can be performed at the appropriate time.

It is recommended that high-risk people undergo screening before the age of 45. A primary care physician can help identify when and how a patient should be checked for CRC if they are concerned about their risk level. Patients with a history of CRC or polyps, a first-degree relative with CRC or advanced polyps (those that would have progressed to CRC if not removed), a family history of certain genetic syndromes, or a history of inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) are all high-risk factors.

What screening options are available for CRC?

Colonoscopy: Colonoscopy is the gold standard of screening tests, detecting about 95% of CRC cases. It's also the only way for a gastroenterologist to discover and remove potentially malignant colon polyps at the same time. Although colonoscopies are generally low-risk procedures, they can include a minor risk of bleeding and perforation, which increases with age.

Prior to the operation, patients should drink a colonoscopy prep, which washes stool out of the colon so that it may be adequately examined during the procedure. The gastroenterologist's office provides the prescription instructions for the prep.

To ensure that the patient is as comfortable as possible, the procedure is usually performed under anaesthesia. It's vital to note that patients aren't put under general anaesthesia, but they usually feel tired and relaxed throughout the procedure.

A gastroenterologist will put a colonoscopy, a flexible tube with a camera at the end, into the rectum during a colonoscopy. The colon is then thoroughly examined. If no polyps are found and the colon has been adequately prepared (cleanout), a repeat colonoscopy is recommended in 10 years. This period will be shorter if polyps are discovered, or if the patient's risk level or symptoms change.

Regarding the most prevalent malignancies in males, what's new?

Regarding the most prevalent malignancies in males, what's new?

Medical research continues to aim for more potent cancer medicines. New approaches that can treat cancer sooner and improve results are still being discovered in labs and research trials. What then has garnered the greatest attention in the fields of colon, lung, and prostate cancer—the three malignancies that affect men most frequently?

Cancer of the prostate

The use of hormone treatments to treat cancer in both advanced and early stages has attracted increasing attention. A few active trials are noteworthy. For example, patients at high risk of cancer relapse are receiving rigorous hormone treatment both before and after prostate surgery as part of the PROTEUS experiment.

In high-risk patients who have already received radiation and hormonal therapy but still have detectable PSA levels, an analogous approach would be to increase the dosage of hormonal medication.

Following prostate surgery, some individuals with high-risk prostate cancer are also receiving hormonal therapy. Using genetic testing of prostate tissue to identify men who have a high risk of cancer recurrence, ERADICATE research is investigating the potential benefits of aggressive hormone therapy for these men following a prostatectomy. (The outcomes of the ERADICATE study and the PROTEUS experiment are anticipated in a few years.)

Treatment for prostate cancer that has already spread has also advanced recently. "In these cases, the common treatment approach is radiation to the prostate and intensive hormonal treatments," the statement reads.
Does prostate cancer increase the possibility of developing other cancers?

Yes, but it also depends on the kind of cancer and how it is treated. Prostate cancer that develops beyond the age of 60 generally does not appear to raise the chance of developing another cancer.

The most frequent malignancy in males is prostate cancer. Prostate cancer affects nearly every male who lives long enough. Therefore, the likelihood of an older man developing a different form of cancer is not higher than that of any other guy who has been diagnosed with prostate cancer.

An increased risk of cancer might also be caused by certain lifestyle choices. For instance, obese men have an increased risk of developing a more aggressive form of prostate cancer. Furthermore, we now know that eating a plant-based diet, exercising frequently, and keeping a healthy weight can all help reduce the chance of developing other cancers, including colon cancer, which is the third most prevalent disease in males.

Men who have had radiation therapy for prostate cancer may have a slight lifetime increase in the chance of acquiring bladder or rectal cancer. But rather than the prostate cancer per se, this has to do with the treatment.

Image : Depositphotos

There are still too many PSA tests conducted on older men.

For males 70 years of age and older, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) advises avoiding regular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Nevertheless, two recent studies found that males in this age bracket continue to undergo too frequent PSA testing.

Researchers chose three million males who underwent routine PSA testing between 2003 and 2019 for the initial study, which appeared in Urology in April 2023. In comparison to younger men, males over the age of 70 were more likely to have high-frequency PSA testing, which is defined as testing more frequently than once every nine months.

The findings also demonstrated that, in comparison to older men examined less frequently, the older men with high-frequency testing had a considerably higher chance of undergoing prostate biopsies and being diagnosed with prostate cancer. The rates of early cancer therapy, however, were the same. This, according to the researchers, demonstrated that prostate biopsies did not significantly alter recommendations, even in cases where the results revealed malignancy.

On April 11, 2023, JAMA Network Open published a second study that surveyed over 32,000 men who were 70 years of age or older. Of the men in this age range, 55.3% had recently undergone a PSA screening. As people aged, the rate decreased, reaching 52.1% for those 75 to 79 and 39.4% for those 80 and above. Nevertheless, the study discovered that many men were still getting screening at ages older than those advised by the USPSTF, even though they would not benefit from routine PSA testing. The findings also revealed that older men often believe that PSA screening has more benefits than drawbacks. Any guy, regardless of age, should base his choice to continue PSA testing on a thoughtful conversation with his physician.
A healthy heart and lungs may shield men from several types of cancer.

According to research published online by JAMA Network Open on June 29, 2023, men who have higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness—also referred to as cardio fitness or aerobic fitness—may be able to reduce their risk of dying from cancer of the colon, lung, or prostate. More than 170,000 men had their health information gathered by researchers, and measures of their VO2 max were taken while they pedaled a stationary bike. The greatest quantity of oxygen that the body can consume during exercise is known as VO2 max. Individuals with higher VO2 max levels have better levels of aerobic fitness.

More cardio-fit men had a lower risk of dying from these malignancies after a mean follow-up period of 9.6 years. These results demonstrate that increasing aerobic exercise intensity from moderate to high levels not only benefits heart health but may also improve men's prognosis for these frequent malignancies.

As summer approaches, skin cancer risk is increased by sun exposure. On a sunny day, walking outside is similar to engaging in combat. You'll need armour (sunscreen or sunblock and sun-protective clothes), a tactical plan (avoiding peak sun hours), and a haven (the shade) if you want to protect your skin from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation, especially during the summer when UV strength is at its highest.

Of course, exposure to sunlight is necessary for the production of vitamin D, the maintenance of healthy bones, the regulation of mood, and the prevention of illness. Unprotected UV exposure, however, can result in skin cancer. Skin cancers that are not melanoma are the most prevalent of them.

Simply defined, melanomas—the aggressive skin cancers that represent barely 1% of all instances but are responsible for the majority of skin cancer fatalities in the United States—are not non-melanoma skin cancers.

Rarely do non-melanoma skin tumours become extremely aggressive. Instead, the most prevalent forms are slow-growing and impact millions of individuals annually. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the two types that can arise from basal cells.

These cancers typically do not metastasize to other organs and are not life-threatening. However, they can be highly harmful. Small skin malignancies can cause bleeding, discomfort, and skin deterioration. They can erode through vital structures like your nose, eyes, bones, or muscles if left untreated. If they grow very large, they may spread and, in rare instances, result in death.

If you need one more motivation to always move, think about this: According to a study by the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, if everyone started exercising more, the United States could be able to prevent tens of thousands of cancer cases each year. Between 2013 and 2016, researchers examined adult cancer diagnoses and the self-reported physical activity of more than 500,000 U.S. adults in each state and the District of Columbia. Scientists calculated that fewer than 300 minutes of exercise each week, or around 46,000 cancer cases annually, could be linked to inactivity. 

Patients immediately experience fear, confusion, and uncertainty as a result of the shock of receiving a cancer diagnosis and thinking about the subsequent treatments. Chemotherapy and radiation treatments wreak havoc on the body, which can also be detrimental to one's appearance. Hair loss, problems with the skin and nails, fluctuating weight, nausea, and exhaustion are unfavourable side effects of cancer treatment. Having to deal with these side effects on a daily basis makes coping with the illness challenging. When confronting cancer, women in particular experience diminished self-confidence and self-esteem. The good news is that many hospitals and clinics provide patients with beauty therapy services performed by certified beauticians and cosmetologists.

Improved standard of living

Patients who have negative effects on their self-image find renewal in the beauty therapy services offered by cosmetologists. Licenced beauticians frequently work with hospitals and clinics to give patients who require them beauty services. Beauticians offer more than just facials, manicures, and hair styling; whether these services are offered one-on-one or in group sessions, they also offer technical guidance, a sympathetic ear, and a peaceful respite. Studies have shown that providing patients with beauty and wellness treatments can improve their quality of life by instructing them in practises and offering assistance to minimise the physical adverse effects of cancer treatments.

You Need to Know That Radiation Therapy Elevates Risks for Future Cancers.

Although the risk is low, you should discuss it with your doctor.

Radiation is a standard treatment for localised prostate cancer, which refers to prostate cancer that is confined to the prostate gland. The long-term results for the majority of men treated in this manner are favourable. Radiation, like other cancer treatments, carries certain risks, including the potential for secondary cancers to develop in the body in the future.

Secondary cancers are characterised by meeting specific criteria:

They differ from the initial cancer a patient was treated for.

they are found in the irradiated area

They were not present prior to the start of radiation treatment

They manifest at least four years after the completion of treatment.

Historical evidence indicates that secondary cancers are uncommon. This conclusion has now been updated by a sizable study of men who received radiation therapy using modern radiation delivery methods.

Study findings and data

Between 2000 and 2015, researchers analysed data from 143,886 men treated for localised prostate cancer at Veterans Affairs medical facilities. The men ranged in age from 60 to 71 and were of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. 52,886 of them received radiation therapy within a year of their diagnosis. The remaining 91,000 men either opted for surgery over a comparable period of time or chose to have their cancers monitored and treated only when — or if — routine exams revealed progression.

After a median of nine years of follow-up, 3% of the men who were treated with radiation developed secondary cancers, compared to 2.5% of the men who chose other treatment options. In order of frequency of detection, the four most prevalent cancers were bladder cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, and rectal cancer. The risk of developing these secondary cancers steadily increased over time, reaching a maximum five to six years after radiation therapy was completed.

Dr. Oliver Sartor, an oncologist at Tulane University School of Medicine in New Orleans who was not involved in the study, says men should discuss the possibility of secondary cancers with their physicians when evaluating treatment options.
A new Harvard tool helps fact-check cancer claims.

The Internet is filled with cancer-causing substance warnings. Shady websites and sensational social media posts warn against antiperspirants, scented candles, and bras. Avoid disposable chopsticks, microwaves, radon gas, and other hazards. There are so many frightening or misleading claims that it is difficult to know which ones to take seriously. According to Timothy Rebbeck, a cancer researcher and the Vincent L. Gregory, Jr., Professor of Cancer Prevention at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, "many people have unnecessary fears about things that might cause cancer, or they're overly cautious about things that aren't supported by science."

Rebbeck and his coworkers have developed a free tool to cut through the confusion.

How does the Cancer FactFinder work?

Experts from the Zhu Family Center for Global Cancer Prevention at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Center for Cancer Equity and Engagement at the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center collaborated to develop the Cancer FactFinder. It provides reliable information regarding the veracity of certain cancer claims. "It's a place to go when you hear something and don't know how to interpret it," says Rebbeck.

When you access Cancer FactFinder, you can search

for cancer claims. Enter a specific term (such as "scented candles") or simply scroll through the entire list of claims the team has investigated. "Currently, we have roughly 70. We will continue to add and update them over time, "Rebbeck says." Learn how claims are checked for accuracy. The Cancer FactFinder team relies on the expert opinion of eminent scientists and health organisations, in addition to scientific evidence from human studies. Animal experiments are not considered. "It is possible to induce cancer in laboratory animals by feeding them or rubbing them with a particular compound." That does not mean it causes human cancer, "Rebbeck asserts.

Discover the members of the Cancer FactFinder team. In addition to Rebbeck and his colleagues, there are a variety of scientific specialists and community advocates from groups such as the

BayState Health
The Boston Cancer Support
Boston University
Men of Color: Health Awareness
Silent Spring Institute
Yale University

Here's everything you need to know about this treatment option.

Men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer have several options for their next step. Many men with slow-growing, low-risk cancer choose active surveillance, a wait-and-see approach that tracks cancer's progress.

Other treatments are recommended if the cancer is at a higher risk (a Gleason score of 7 or higher) or has already spread. (On a scale of 6 to 10, a Gleason score classifies prostate tumour cells.) The greater the number, the more likely it is that cancer will spread. There are two options: surgery to remove the prostate (known as a prostatectomy) or radiation to kill cancer cells.

Studies comparing these two approaches show that neither has an advantage in terms of cancer control. Your path will be determined by factors such as your current state of health, the specifics of your cancer, and your personal preferences. However, for many men, radiation therapy may be the better option.

"It's much more precise than traditional radiation used for other types of cancer," says Dr. Anthony D'Amico, a radiation oncologist at the Harvard-affiliated Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer can spread over time, and if a man's tumor has characteristics that indicate slow growth, he can choose active surveillance over immediate treatment. Men on active surveillance receive routine PSA blood tests and prostate biopsies and are only treated if cancer progresses or shows signs of increasing activity. However, when it comes to treatment, up to one-third of men opt-out. A new study has found that some of these men can safely put off treatment for a while.

The University of California, San Francisco researchers identified 531 men whose cancers progressed while they were under active surveillance. All of the men were initially diagnosed with Grade Group 1 prostate cancer, the lowest rung on a classification system that ranks cancers from low to high risk of aggressive spread. The biopsies of the men's tumors showed that they had moved into higher-risk grade groups, which are usually treated within an average of 25 months.
Within six months of their tumour upgrade, 192 men underwent prostate removal surgery. However, 125 men waited up to five years before having the operation, and 214 men chose not to be treated at all.
A new study examines treatment-related regrets among prostate cancer patients. 

Men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer have difficult treatment decisions, and the last thing any of them wants is to subsequently regret their treatment choices. Regrets about therapy, however, are extremely common, according to a new study.

The research discovered that more than one in ten individuals diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2011 and 2012 were dissatisfied with their selected treatment.

All of the guys were under the age of 80, with an average age of 64. Almost half of them were diagnosed with slow-growing malignancies that had a low chance of recurrence or spread following treatment. The remainder were classified as being at intermediate or higher risk.

All of the men were treated in one of three ways: surgical removal of the prostate (called a radical prostatectomy); radiation therapy; or active surveillance, which involves monitoring prostate tumors with routine PSA tests and imaging and treating only when, or if, the disease progresses. Regardless of their cancer risk at the time of diagnosis, more than half of men opted for surgery. The majority of others chose radiation, while almost 13% of males — the bulk of whom were classified as low- or intermediate-risk — chose active surveillance. The guys were then asked at repeated intervals if they felt they would have been better off with a different strategy or if the treatment they had selected was wrong.

What the findings revealed

After five years, 279 of the males (or 13% of the overall group) expressed regret about their choice. Men who had surgery were the most likely to express dissatisfaction with their decision; 183 of them (13%) felt they would have been better off taking a different method. In comparison, 76 (11%) of radiation-treated men and 20 (7%) of men who selected active surveillance voiced remorse. Men in the low-to-intermediate-risk category expressed greater regret about electing for immediate treatment with surgery or radiation over active surveillance. However, the guys with high-risk cancer did not regret receiving immediate treatment.
Treatment Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Adrenocortical carcinoma is a type of cancer that affects the adrenal gland. The illness is also known as adrenal cortex cancer, adrenal cortical cancer, or adrenocortical carcinoma. This cancer is extremely rare.

The adrenal gland is a tiny organ that sits just above the kidney. It produces vital hormones. The body contains two adrenal glands. Each kidney has one on top of it. The endocrine system includes the adrenal glands. Your endocrine system aids in the regulation of bodily functions.

Adrenocortical carcinoma is a cancer that grows on the outer layer of the adrenal gland and spreads throughout the body. The cortex is the name given to this layer. It generates hormones that

assist in maintaining blood pressure 
Balance of Water and salt in the body 
aid in the management of the body's usage of protein, fat, and carbs, 
 contribute to a person's male or female features.
Adrenocortical cancer has the potential to spread to other regions of the body, such as the lungs, liver, or bones.

Adrenal gland lumps are not uncommon. Adrenal adenomas are typically benign (noncancerous) growths. In rare circumstances, doctors may have difficulty distinguishing between an adenoma and cancer, therefore you may require additional tests or examinations.

A pheochromocytoma is a form of adrenal gland tumor that can develop in the inner section of the gland, known as the adrenal medulla. However, this article will solely cover malignancies of the adrenal cortex.

No content on this site, regardless of date, should be used to replace direct medical advice from your doctor or another trained practitioner.
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