Vaginal inflammation is referred to as vaginitis. Infection is the most prevalent cause in premenopausal women. Low estrogen levels after menopause can result in vaginal atrophy (atrophic vaginitis). An allergic reaction to an irritating substance, such as a spermicide, douche, or bath soap, can also cause vaginitis.
One of three diseases causes almost all infectious vaginitis:
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of an abnormal vaginal discharge or an unpleasant vaginal odour, and it is caused by a shift in the kind of bacteria that typically dwell in the vagina. Other bacteria, such as Prevotella, Mobiluncus, G. vaginalis, and Mycoplasma hominis, replace typical Lactobacillus bacteria in bacterial vaginosis. The rationale for this modification is unknown. Bacterial vaginosis can raise the risk of preterm birth in pregnant women.
Candida albicans, often known as vaginal yeast infections, is the most common cause of vaginal infections. 75 per cent of all women will have at least one Candida vaginal infection in their lives, and up to 45 per cent will have two or more. If a woman's body is stressed from a bad diet, lack of sleep, or sickness, or if she is pregnant, using antibiotics or birth control pills, or douching too frequently, she is more likely to get vaginal yeast infections. Recurrent yeast infections are more common in women who have diabetes or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Trichomonas vaginitis, commonly known as trichomoniasis, is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, a tiny one-celled organism. In women, Trichomonas causes inflammation of the vaginal canal, cervix, and urethra. Trichomonas infections can potentially raise the risk of early rupture of the membranes and preterm birth in pregnant women.
Bacterial vaginosis — Bacterial vaginosis creates a foul-smelling vaginal discharge that is abnormally greyish-white.
Candida vaginitis – The symptoms of Candida vaginitis include:
Itching or discomfort in the vaginal area.
Vaginal discharge that looks like it's made of cheese.
Burning pain around the vaginal entrance, especially if urine comes into contact with the region.
During sexual intercourse, there may be pain or discomfort.
Trichomonas — Trichomonas is a sexually transmitted disease that is highly common. Trichomonas organisms can survive in the vaginal canal for years without generating symptoms in women. Symptoms that may appear include:
A foul-smelling, yellowish-green vaginal discharge.
Itching or discomfort in the vaginal area.
Irritation and inflammation of the vaginal entrance.
Pain in the vaginal area during sexual activity.
Burning sensation during urination.
Symptoms might be worse during menstruation.
Your doctor will do a gynaecological examination and look for inflammation and abnormal discharge in your external genitals, vagina, and cervix after you describe your symptoms.
If your vaginal walls are covered with a greyish-white discharge, your doctor will suspect bacterial vaginosis. This vaginal discharge may have a fishy odour. A pH test strip may be used by your doctor to determine the acidity of the discharge. The pH of vaginal fluid is usually less than 4.6. An elevated pH is frequently caused by bacterial vaginosis. A sample of this fluid may be taken by your doctor to be studied under a microscope.
If your vagina is inflamed and you have a white discharge in your vagina and around the vaginal entrance, your doctor will suspect Candida vaginitis. Your doctor may collect a sample of your vaginal discharge to analyze under a microscope in a laboratory.
By looking at your vaginal discharge under a microscope, your doctor can confirm that you have Trichomonas vaginitis. Your doctor may also test you for gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and HIV since persons with Trichomonas infections are more prone to develop other sexually transmitted illnesses.
LEARN ABOUT VULVAR CANCER, INCLUDING RISK FACTORS, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT.
Depending on the kind of vaginal infection, proper treatment can cure up to 90% of vaginal infections in two weeks or less (typically just a few days). Vaginal infections that go untreated can persist for years, with or without symptoms.
Because Trichomonas vaginitis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), you may avoid getting infected by doing the following:
Not having sex (Abstinence).
Having intercourse with only one partner who isn't infected.
Regularly using male latex condoms with or without spermicide during sexual intercourse.
You can help prevent vaginitis by:
Maintain a clean and dry environment around your genitals.
Soaps and bath additives that irritate the skin, as well as vaginal sprays and douches, should be avoided.
Tampons and sanitary napkins should be changed often.
Wear moisture-wicking underwear made of loose cotton. Underwear made of nylon should be avoided.
Instead of sitting in your wet bathing suit for lengthy periods after swimming, change swiftly into dry clothing.
Bacterial vaginosis can be treated with the antibiotic metronidazole in either an oral (Flagyl) or a gel (Metro-Gel) form in non-pregnant women. Clindamycin (Cleocin) is another powerful antibiotic. Pregnant women may get alternative pharmaceutical therapy due to concerns about the medicines' potential effects on the growing fetus. Routine sex partner treatment is not suggested since it does not appear to alter the outcome of treatment or the risk of re-infection.
Antifungal medicines that are inserted directly into the vagina as pills, creams, ointments, or suppositories can be used to treat Candida vaginitis. Butoconazole (Femstat), clotrimazole (many brand names), miconazole (Monistat and others), nystatin (several brand names), tioconazole (Gynecare), and terconazole are some of the medicines available (Terazol). Oral fluconazole (Diflucan Oral) in a single dosage may also be utilized. Treatment of sex partners is typically discouraged.
Metronidazole, an oral antibiotic, is used to treat Trichomonas vaginal infections. To avoid reinfection, an infected person's sex partners must also be treated for Trichomonas. During the first trimester, pregnant women should avoid using metronidazole.
Metronidazole can cause cramping, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing in persons who consume alcohol. To avoid these issues, don't drink alcohol while taking metronidazole or for at least two days after you've completed the tablets.
When should you see a professional?
If you feel vaginal discomfort or an atypical vaginal discharge, call your doctor immediately, especially if you are pregnant.
Antibiotics can treat up to 90% of vaginal infections. If your infection does not respond to the first therapy, your doctor may be able to cure it with a longer course of medicine or a different drug. When a woman's sex partner has not been treated for Trichomonas vaginitis, it generally continues after treatment. The spouse will continue to transfer Trichomonas if they are not treated. Please prevent the spread because health is wealth.