What is Rhabdomyosarcoma? Cancer of soft tissue | MÉLÒDÝ JACÒB

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Wednesday, December 8, 2021

What is Rhabdomyosarcoma? Cancer of soft tissue

Cancer

Sarcomas are a form of cancer that originates in the body's soft tissues (fleshy components), as well as bone and fatty tissue. This is a distinct form of cancer from carcinomas. Carcinomas occur more frequently throughout the organs of the body, particularly those that contain glands. Colon cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, Lung cancer, and breast cancer are all examples of carcinomas.

Rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon type of cancer that develops in the skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones. They aid in the movement of the body. The majority of rhabdomyosarcomas occur in children and adolescents.

Rhabdomyosarcoma can develop itself in any location on the body. It most frequently manifests itself in the legs, bladder, head & neck, arms reproductive organs, chest, and abdomen. Rhabdomyosarcoma has a high proclivity for metastasizing to other organs.


Rhabdomyosarcoma is classified into two kinds.


Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is most frequently found in children younger than the age of six.

Typically, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma occurs in older children or adolescents. It is more aggressive in nature than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.

The least frequent kind is anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma. Adults are more prone to develop it than children.

Symptoms


The symptoms of rhabdomyosarcoma are quite variable and are mostly determined by the size and location of the disease. These tumors may not manifest symptoms until they reach a certain size.

Symptoms include the following:


Continual lump or swelling in the body, which may be painful
Bulging or drooping eyelids
Migraine and headache
Having difficulty urinating or passing stools
Urine containing blood
Symptoms of earache or sinus infection
Nasal, throat, vaginal, or rectum bleeding
Constipation, nausea, and stomach pain
These symptoms do not always indicate malignancy. However, it is critical to consult your physician if you or your kid encounter any of these symptoms.


Diagnosis


Your doctor will do a physical examination and review your medical history to check for indicators of disease. He or she will elicit information about your health habits, as well as previous diseases and treatments.

Your doctor may also advise you to get one or more of the following tests: Additionally, a combination of the following tests and treatments will be required for diagnosis:

X-ray. Makes images of tissues, bones, and organs using energy beams.

CT scan. Utilizes a revolving x-ray camera to get comprehensive cross-sectional images of the tumor and to determine if it has spread to other organs (for example, the lungs or abdomen).

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Utilizes a powerful magnet and radio waves to create detailed images of the inside of the body.

PET scan: Doctors occasionally use this test to determine whether and where cancer has spread.

Bone scan: To determine whether cancer cells have moved to the bone, a scanner and low-level radioactive material are used.


Biopsy. Cells or tissues are extracted for evaluation during surgery. Biopsies can be conducted with or without a needle. Pathologists, who are specially trained physicians, can then examine the tissue under a microscope.

Aspiration and biopsy of bone marrow. Bone and bone marrow fluid is extracted from the lower back and pelvis in order to determine if the malignancy has spread.

Staging


Staging determines the amount of cancer present, as well as its location and extent of spread. Three factors determine the stage of rhabdomyosarcoma:

Rhabdomyosarcoma type
Alveolar or embryonic



Clinical group


Rhabdomyosarcoma is classified according to its clinical characteristics (I-IV). The classification is based on the severity of the disease and the amount of tumor excised initially during surgery.

TNM rating

The TNM rating is based on the following:

T  (tumor size)
N (whether cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes)
M. (whether cancer has spread to distant organs)
The patient is then classified as low, intermediate, or high risk, depending on the chance that cancer has metastasized (spread) or will do so in the future.


Expected Timeframe


Rhabdomyosarcoma will continue to grow indefinitely unless and until it is treated. If left untreated, it has the potential to spread to other parts of the body.

Prevention


Certain hereditary conditions make rhabdomyosarcoma more likely to occur. These include a variety of genetic disorders that increase a person's risk of developing this type of cancer, as well as the following cancers:

Syndrome Li-Fraumeni
Type 1 neurofibromatosis
Syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann
Costello syndrome
The Noonan syndrome
There are no recognized risk factors for this condition that may be prevented. Genetic testing may assist in identifying further family members who may be at risk of developing this type of sarcoma or other types of cancer.

Prevention


Certain hereditary conditions make rhabdomyosarcoma more likely to occur. These include a variety of genetic disorders that increase a person's risk of developing this type of cancer, as well as the following cancers:

Syndrome Li-Fraumeni
Type 1 neurofibromatosis
Syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann
Costello syndrome
The Noonan syndrome
There are no recognized risk factors for this condition that may be prevented. Genetic testing may assist in identifying further family members who may be at risk of developing this type of sarcoma or other types of cancer.



Treatment


Your doctor will make a therapy recommendation based on various considerations, including the following:

Tumor location and size
Age of the patient
Tolerance of the patient to the medicines, many of which have substantial negative effects
Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are frequently used in combination to treat this condition.
The surgeon excises the tumor to the greatest extent possible. He or she will make every effort to avoid causing injury or disfigurement, although this can be difficult. In some instances, the surgeon may have to amputate the entire or a portion of a limb. Occasionally, the limb can be saved.


Chemotherapy is the process of using medications to eradicate cancer cells. Chemotherapy is generally always administered following surgery. It eliminates any cancer cells that remain in the area where the tumor was removed. Additionally, it can eliminate microscopic pockets of cancer cells that may exist in other areas of the body.

For some patients, the doctor may propose radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is a form of cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells and decrease tumors. If the entire tumor was not eliminated after surgery, this procedure may be indicated. Additionally, it may be utilized if the cancer is considered to be more aggressive but has not migrated to distant areas. Surgical removal of cancer (sarcoma) deposits that have lodged in the lung may be essential. This is particularly effective in certain conditions.

Rhabdomyosarcoma treatments may have adverse effects. Hair loss, nausea, exhaustion, and increased susceptibility to infection are just some of the side effects. Your physician will assist you in managing these side effects.


Later in life, long-term adverse effects may also emerge. This can include the early onset of heart disease or memory issues.

Doctors will select the treatment that is most likely to aid in the patient's sarcoma cure. Without treatment, the disease has a high probability of being fatal.

Special care must be made while treating cancer in children. The medical team should take into account and attempt to minimize the long-term negative effects of cancer treatment. These include the following:

Fertility issues
The risk of developing another cancer is increased as a result of the radiation or chemotherapy used to treat the rhabdomyosarcoma initially.
Issues with bone development
Soft tissue growth problems
Heart damage caused by the chemotherapy or radiation used
Mental impairments
Long-term thyroid issues, as this part of the body, can be harmed by radiation used to treat cancer.


When Should You Speak to A doctor?


Consult with your doctor if you or your kid exhibits any of the following signs of rhabdomyosarcoma:

A protracted bulge or swelling in a certain area of the body
Bulging or swollen eyelids
Migraine and headache
Having difficulty urinating or passing stools
Urine containing blood
Nasal, throat, vaginal, or rectum bleeding
Enlargement of one scrotum side



Prognosis


The outlook is dependent on a number of factors, including the following:

The type, location, and size of the tumor
Whether the tumor can be surgically removed
Age and general health of the patient
The tumor cells' specific properties
Whether cancer contains substances that can be used as targets for targeted therapy
It is critical to get medical attention and follow-up care for rhabdomyosarcoma promptly. Due to the rarity of these tumors, it is critical to seek treatment at a facility that has experience treating children with this type of cancer. Pediatric oncologists are continually working to improve the outcomes of children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer. Your doctor may even recommend that your child joins in a clinical trial evaluating novel treatments for this form of sarcoma.


More Info


National Cancer Institute (NCI)
https://www.cancer.gov/

American Cancer Society (ACS)
https://www.cancer.org/

Sarcoma Foundation of America
https://www.curesarcoma.org/

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
https://www.dana-farber.org/

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No content on this site, regardless of date, should be used to replace direct medical advice from your doctor or another trained practitioner.
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